Oral and dental injuries are the most common problem in children after dental caries. Milk tooth injuries are seen especially in children around 1 year of age who are just learning to walk. Permanent tooth injuries, on the other hand, are usually seen during the school period, as a result of pool accidents in summer and in children who are interested in sports. Apart from these, bicycle and traffic accidents, falls, fights and physical violence are among the causes of dental injuries.
As a result of trauma, fractures may occur in deciduous or permanent teeth, the tooth may be completely dislodged, it may be embedded in the gum, it may be displaced, root fractures may occur, and injuries may occur in the soft tissues of the lip, cheek and mouth and surrounding support tissues. Injuries resulting from trauma often require emergency treatment and in this case, the family or teacher should be cold-blooded and contact the pediatric dentist or the nearest clinic as soon as possible.
When, where and how the trauma occurred is extremely important in terms of the treatment process to be followed and the success of the treatment. Other important factors include the child’s age, general health status, whether any treatment has been performed, whether there is pain in the teeth, and whether the child has been traumatized before.
As a result of trauma; only the tooth, tooth and root, only the root or surrounding support tissues may be injured. The dentist will perform a detailed clinical and radiographic examination to make the correct diagnosis and apply appropriate treatment options.
The important thing to remember in deciduous tooth injuries is that the developing permanent tooth bud under the tooth may be affected. In the jaw, the roots of the deciduous teeth are in close relationship with the permanent tooth bud. Therefore, injuries to the deciduous teeth in the form of displacement or embedding in the gum can also affect the permanent tooth bud.
If the tooth is broken as a result of the injury, the broken part of the tooth should be tried to be found, washed under running water and brought to the physician. If the fragment is suitable, it can be glued back to the tooth with special methods. In cases where the piece is not suitable or cannot be found, the broken part of the tooth can be aesthetically completed with composite fillings.
If the tooth is completely out of the mouth, it should be washed under running water without touching the root part, stored in milk or water and brought to the dentist as soon as possible. It is very important not to touch the root part of the tooth and not to damage the tissues there. Teeth that have been stored under appropriate conditions and brought to the dentist in a short time can be replaced according to the condition of the bone and surrounding tissues after clinical examination. In this case, the dentist will decide on the most appropriate treatment option.
If the tooth is shaken as a result of trauma but has not been dislodged, a dentist should be consulted as soon as possible.
The use of mouth guards (mouth guard- sports guard) is extremely important to prevent tooth fractures, jaw fractures and soft tissue injuries that may occur as a result of sports accidents. Mouth guards act as a cushion between the teeth and prevent direct damage to the teeth and jaw by softening the force on the teeth during trauma. There are ready-made types of mouth guards as well as types that are individually prepared in the laboratory.
In dental injuries, going to the dentist as soon as possible plays the most important role in the success of the treatment. Traumatized teeth must be under the control of a dentist. The dentist will evaluate the teeth and surrounding tissues clinically and radiographically at intervals deemed necessary and make appropriate recommendations.
Cansu Uzun Önalan