What is a Filling?
Filling; It is the most basic treatment method applied to restore teeth that have been damaged by decay or have lost material due to trauma or broken teeth. Today, many different materials are used for filling.
Composite filling, commonly known as radiated filling or white filling, is a kind of plastic mixture containing silicon dioxide particles. The decay is cleaned and the tooth cavity, which we call the cavity, is prepared. A special method called adhesive system (bonding) is used to bond the composite filling to the tooth. Chemical bonding of the composite material to the tooth is realized with LED light or halogen light devices.
It is sufficient to clean only the decay without the need for extra abrasion from the tooth. It is extremely durable as the remaining tooth tissues are supported. Composite fillings integrate with the tooth and do not fall out. Having color options provides ease of use and high aesthetic results in every region. It can be used in the mouth for many years if sensitivity is shown in the application.
Fiber-reinforced composite fillings and ceramic-containing composite fillings, which are preferred depending on the amount of material loss, are developing composite technologies. They are advantageous in terms of durability.
Porcelain Fillings (Inlay-Onlay)
It is possible to restore teeth that have suffered serious loss of material but do not need to be coated with porcelain fillings.
In the first session, the decay is cleaned and necessary arrangements are made. Then an impression is taken and the tooth is covered with a temporary filling. Porcelain filling is prepared in the laboratory environment and in the second session, the compatibility of the filling with the tooth, its height and color are checked and adhered to the tooth. Thanks to its high polishability, plaque retention is very low.
Thanks to Cad glass technologies, digital measurement and computer-aided production minimizes the time between two sessions. The margin of error is close to zero. Aesthetic harmony is perfect and restorations closest to nature are produced.
Glass Ionomer Fillings
They are used in children’s milk teeth because they are easy to apply and contain fluoride, which protects the teeth against tooth decay. In adults, it is used as a long-term temporary filling material. Traditional glass ionomer fillings are weaker than composite fillings. Aesthetically, they look more opaque and dull compared to natural tooth color.
Amalgam is a special alloy obtained by mixing mercury, a metal in liquid form at room temperature, with other metal powders such as silver, tin, copper, zinc in solid form. It has been used for many years due to its features such as easy application and low cost. It is not applied in our clinic due to reasons such as not being aesthetic, establishing only a physical connection with the tooth, and deforming under pressure and heat.
Tooth Cracks and Fractures
Cracked Tooth Syndrome
Many physical factors can cause teeth to crack or even fracture. Since the symptoms of a cracked tooth vary, diagnosis is very difficult. Patient complaints may persist over a long period of time.
Patients often report a prolonged history of pain of varying intensity, the source of which is difficult to determine. This pain may be accompanied by cold sensitivity. The source of this sharp pain, especially when chewing foods that create a vacuum effect when chewing, is often not identified. This condition is known as “cracked tooth syndrome”. Symptoms may vary depending on the depth of the crack, the direction of progression and the tissue involved in the crack line.
What are the Causes of Tooth Cracks?
The main cause of tooth cracks are physical forces, especially the habit of clenching and grinding teeth, which we call bruxism, trauma, expansion and contraction of amalgam fillings due to temperature change, a hard food bitten suddenly, money functional habits, early and unbalanced contacts in the teeth, and the existing fillings or coatings not being in the correct bite relationship. However, the cause of tooth cracks may not always be identified.
Is Treatment of Tooth Cracks Possible?
Early diagnosis is important for successful treatment. In addition to radiographic and clinical examination, some bite tests, vitality tests, thermal tests, halogen light examination if the crack is superficial are very useful. In order to make a visual diagnosis, it is sometimes necessary to remove the restoration on the affected tooth or to open the suspicious area surgically. If the cause is not eliminated and the crack is not treated, tooth fractures are possible.
The treatment method of a cracked tooth is determined depending on the location, depth and direction of the crack. If the crack or fracture is at the level of the enamel layer, it can be followed up or support can be obtained from composite fillings depending on the size of the complaint. Depending on the depth of the crack at the level of the dentin layer, filling or coating is preferred. However, if the crack has affected the vascular nerve bundle of the tooth, root canal treatment should be performed. Then, it will be appropriate to apply a crown to support the remaining tooth tissues.
Unfortunately, the chance of treatment is gradually decreasing in root cracks and fractures. The risk of infection in the gum at the level of the broken root also increases. There is a high rate of tooth extraction.
After treatment, a night plate that will balance the chewing forces should be used. Early contacts should be organized. A balanced bite should be ensured. The condition of the tooth should be monitored in periodic controls.